Colectomy is a surgical resection of the large intestine. The colon or large intestine is the last part of the digestive track. In adults It is almost 4 to 6 feet in length. Colon soaks the water content and stores the waste food material. Rectum follows the large intestine. It is the process of removing either small part or the complete colon where the small intestine is directly connected to the rectum. There are 4 methods in this process which includes
Right Hemicolectomy, process in which the whole of ascending colon and cecum is removed and the colon is reconnected to the small intestine.
Left Hemicolectomy, a process in which the descending colon is removed and the remaining is connected to the rectum.
Sigmoid Colectomy, a process in which either a part or full of sigmoid colon is removed, and the descending colon is connected to the rectum. In case of low anterior resection a prt of sigmoid colon and rectum is removed and the descending colon is connected to the remaining part of the rectum.
Abdominal Perineal Resection, is a process in which either a part or full of sigmoid colon and the entire large intestine, rectum and anus are removed. On such cases colostomy is usually performed. Colostomy is creating an opening in the stomach wall to let out the waste material.
Colectomy is usually done to in case of diseases like cancer, polyps, irritable bowel disease, bleeding, blockage, volvulus, rectal prolapsed, diverculities, etc.,
Symptoms of the disease include bleeding from rectum, abdominal pain, new diarrhea, constipation, stool size, weight loss, anemia, cramping, vomiting, fever, etc.,
Tests which conclude colorectal diseases include blood test, colonoscopy, barium enema and CT scan.
During the laparoscopic procedure, four to five incisions are made of about 0.5cm and usually the abdomen is inflated using carbon dioxide. Usually among the incisions one is made bigger to remove the colon. Then the troc arcs of the laparoscopy are sent with the camera attached to view the insights through the monitor. The removal of rectum depends on the severity of the desease. Advantages of such surgery include
Less pain from incision
Faster recovery time
Faster return to normal diet
Faster return to normal activities
Less hospital stay
Fast healing of incisions.