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It involves the study, diagnosis and treatment of defects and problems associated with the endocrine system the system that is involved in the production of hormones. Hormones produced by these glands are sent into the bloodstream to the various tissues in the body. They send signals to those tissues to tell them what they are supposed to do. When the glands do not produce the right amount of hormones, diseases develop that can affect many aspects of life.

Billroth hospital is one of the pioneered institutions that have possessed experienced endocrinology specialist to treat various problems associated with hormones. The department has been equipped with the advanced technology and machines to diagnose and treat any complicated problems.

We treat all sorts of deficiencies that are in par with various glands of the body. The glands include

Adrenal glands: Two glands that sit on top of the kidneys that release the hormone cortisol.

Hypothalamus: A part of the lower middle brain that tells the pituitary gland when to release hormones.

Ovaries: The female reproductive organs that release eggs and produce sex hormones.

Islet cells in the pancreas: Cells in the pancreas control the release of the hormones insulin and glucagon.

Parathyroid: Four tiny glands in the neck that play a role in bone development.

Pineal gland: A gland found near the center of the brain that may be linked to sleep patterns.

Pituitary gland: A gland found at the base of brain behind the sinuses. It is often called the "master gland" because it influences many other glands, especially the thyroid. Problems with the pituitary gland can affect bone growth, a woman's menstrual cycles, and the release of breast milk.

Testes: The male reproductive glands that produce sperm and sex hormones.

Thymus: A gland in the upper chest that helps develop the body's immune system early in life.

Thyroid: A butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck that controls metabolism. The adrenal gland releases too little of the hormone cortisol and sometimes, aldosterone. Symptoms include fatigue, stomach upset, dehydration, and skin changes. Addison's disease is a type of adrenal insufficiency. Overproduction of a pituitary gland hormone leads to an overactive adrenal gland. A similar condition called Cushing's syndrome may occur in people, particularly children, who take high doses of corticosteroid medications. The thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone, leading to weight loss, fast heart rate, sweating, and nervousness. The most common cause for an overactive thyroid is an autoimmune disorder called Grave's disease. The thyroid gland do not produce enough thyroid hormone leading to fatigue, constipation, dry skin, and depression. The underactive gland can cause slowed development in children. Some types of hypothyroidism are present at birth. The pituitary gland releases little or no hormones. It may be caused by a number of different diseases. Women with this condition may stop getting their periods. These rare, genetic conditions are passed down through families. They cause tumors of the parathyroid, adrenal, and thyroid glands, leading to overproduction of hormones. Overproduction of androgens interfere with the development of eggs and their release from the female ovaries. PCOS is a leading cause of infertility. Abnormally early puberty that occurs when glands tell the body to release sex hormones too soon in life. Endocrine disorders are typically grouped into two categories:

  • Endocrine disease that results when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone, called a hormone imbalance.

  • Endocrine disease due to the development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect hormone levels.


The endocrine's feedback system helps control the balance of hormones in the bloodstream. If your body has too much or too little of a certain hormone, the feedback system signals the proper gland or glands to correct the problem. A hormone imbalance may occur if this feedback system has trouble keeping the right level of hormones in the bloodstream, or if your body doesn't clear them out of the bloodstream properly.

Increased or decreased levels of endocrine hormone may be caused by:

  • A problem with the endocrine feedback system

  • Failure of a gland to stimulate another gland to release hormones (for example, a problem with the hypothalamus can disrupt hormone production in the pituitary gland)

  • A genetic disorder, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) or congenital hypothyroidism

  • Infection

  • Injury to an endocrine gland

  • Tumor of an endocrine gland

  • Most endocrine tumors and nodules (lumps) are noncancerous. They usually do not spread to other parts of the body. However, a tumor or nodule on the gland may interfere with the gland's hormone production.


Interventional Pulmonology Procedures

Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy can be defined as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure that permits direct visualization of the tracheo bronchial lumen with the help of the bronchoscope, a specialized device.

Bronchoscopy is the most commonly used invasive procedure in pulmonology.

Bronchoscopy permits collection of respiratory secretion from the tracheo bronchial tree as well as tissue samples from the airway mucusa, lung parenchyma and lympnedes and other masses located immediately adjacent to but out side the tracheo bronchial lumen.

Bronchoscopy is also used as a therapeutic tool to treat the airway luminal obstruction caused by various diseases, bleeding from respiratory structures and several pulmonary disorders.

Diagonostic Indications

  • Unexplained Cough
  • Hemoptysis
  • Localised Wheeze (with suggestion of obstruction)
  • Stridor
  • Unexplained Chest Radiography Opacity.
  • Pulmonary infection (when not improving)
  • Immuno Compromised
  • Diffuse lung diseases Non-infectious
  • Intra thoracic Lympthadenopathy
  • Pulmonary Neoplasm
  • Foreign body
  • Burns
  • Vocal cord & Diaphragm Palsy

Therapeutic Indications

  • Removal of airway secretions, mucus plugs, clots and necrotic debris
  • Atelectasis
  • Foreign body
  • Neoplasms
  • Laser
  • Electro cautery
  • Endobronchial ultrasound
  • Argon Plasma Cogulation ( APC)
  • Cryotheraphy
  • Stenting
  • Lavage

Medical Thoracoscopy
PulmonaryTuberculosis(TB)
Bronchial Asthma
10 Jun

Chest Medicine

  • 9 AM - 3 PM
  • Dr. Lakshmipathy
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