Bronchoscopy can be defined as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure that permits direct visualization of the tracheo bronchial lumen with the help of the bronchoscope, a specialized device.
Bronchoscopy is the most commonly used invasive procedure in pulmonology.
Bronchoscopy permits collection of respiratory secretion from the tracheo bronchial tree as well as tissue samples from the airway mucusa, lung parenchyma and lympnedes and other masses located immediately adjacent to but out side the tracheo bronchial lumen.
Bronchoscopy is also used as a therapeutic tool to treat the airway luminal obstruction caused by various diseases, bleeding from respiratory structures and several pulmonary disorders.
Medical Thoracoscopy or pleuroscopy is an invasive technique to visualise the pleural cavity under local anesthesia / conscious sedation.
TB is a completely curable disease. It is due to mycobacterium tubercle bacilli causing cough, fever, weight loss etc. The diagnostic tests are sputum test for AFB and chest radiography. Treatment consists of 6-9 months with anti TB therapy.
TB can manifest as hemoptysis (coughing out of blood), Fever of unknown origin, pleural effusion etc., MDR-TB is diagnosed based on the sensitivity of the MTB Bacilli.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and coughing, particularly at night or in the early morning. Clinical history and Spirometry (PFT with reversibility testing) is a breathing test to confirm asthma.
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