Endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic medical procedure that is used to assess the interior surfaces of an organ by inserting a tube into the body. The instrument may have a rigid or flexible tube and not only provide an image for visual inspection and photography but also enable taking biopsies and retrieval of foreign objects. Endoscopy is the vehicle for minimally invasive surgery, and patients may receive conscious sedation so they do not have to be consciously aware of the discomfort.
Many endoscopic procedures are considered to be relatively painless and, at worst, associated with moderate discomfort; for example, in esophagogastroduodenoscopy, most patients tolerate the procedure with only topical anesthesia of the oropharynx using lignocaine spray.
An endoscope can consist of
Endoscopy can involve The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract):
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), duodenoscope-assisted cholangiopancreatoscopy, intraoperative cholangioscopy The respiratory tract :
The female reproductive system
Normally closed body cavities (through a small incision):
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